Journal of NeuroPhilosophy <p><strong>Free to read, free to publish. Authors are not charged a fee for submission or publication. </strong></p> <p><a href=""><span style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>December 2023 Issue Published</strong></span></a></p> <p><a href=""><span style="font-weight: 400;"><em><strong><img src="" /></strong></em></span></a></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><strong><a href="">AUTHOR GUIDELINES</a> <a href="">INDEXED DATABASES</a> </strong></span><span style="font-weight: 400;"><strong><a href="">ARCHIVES</a> </strong></span><span style="font-weight: 400;"><strong><a href="">FOR EDITOR</a> <a href="">FOR REVIEWER</a></strong></span></p> <p><em>Journal of NeuroPhilosophy</em> (JNphi)<span style="font-weight: 400;"> is dedicated to supporting interdisciplinary exploration of Philosophy and its relation to the Nervous System. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">The most important goal here is to be able to offer answers for the ancient philosophical unsolved questions in the light of neuroscience with fresh, groundbreaking perspectives. Neurophilosophy is the fresh way with a new perspectives of exit from the box or bottle of classical philosophy. φ <a href="">Read more...</a></span></p> <h3 class="u-clr-black js-editor-group-role u-margin-s-bottom"><a title="SCOPE" href=""><img src="" /></a></h3> AnKa :: publisher en-US Journal of NeuroPhilosophy 1307-6531 <p>Authors continue to hold copyright with no restrictions. </p> <p><img src="" alt="mceclip0-f02f9172c1e32246593e0263ea23949d.png" /></p> The Selfhood-Components Dynamics in the Spectrum of Discrete Normotypical and Pathological Modes <p>In this first-of-its-kind neurophenomenological study we investigated the dynamic configuration and the levels of variability of the “Self”-, “Me”-, and “I”- components that comprise a complex experiential Selfhood across 16 distinct modes covering a range of healthy-normal, altered, and pathological brain states. The phenomenology was addressed by examining the mental structures of subjective self-experience, and for the neurophysiological counterpart, we used electroencephalogram analysis to gather data on three subnets of the self-referential brain network that correspond to the three components of Selfhood. This methodological approach allowed us to uncover peculiarities and generalities in the dynamic of the Selfhood triad across a wide range of modes that could not be seen in a single study. We showed that any given Selfhood state is determined by varying proportions of “Self”, “Me”, and “I”-components depending on the phenomenological manifestation of a particular mode. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the “Self”-component has more leeway in expressing various pathological modes while having a very narrow window for variance in norm. The “I”-component, on the other hand, exhibits the opposite tendency, with a wide range of normal modes and only a narrow window for true pathological expression. Finally, the “Me”-component expresses a position intermediate between the “Self”- and “I”-components (though closer to the “I”-component). The findings are discussed with an emphasis on their theoretical, conceptual, philosophical, and clinical implications.</p> Andrew Fingelkurts Alexander Fingelkurts Tarja Kallio-Tamminen Copyright (c) 2023 Andrew Fingelkurts, Alexander Fingelkurts, Tarja Kallio-Tamminen 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10203089 Neurobiology of the Milgram Obedience Experiment <p>This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of the neurobiology underlying the Milgram Obedience Experiment, a cornerstone in understanding human behavior under authority. Beginning with an examination of traumatic historical events, particularly the Holocaust, the manuscript delves into the psychological underpinnings of obedience. It discusses how individuals, like Adolf Eichmann, rationalized their actions as mere adherence to orders, a phenomenon later empirically studied by Stanley Milgram. Milgram's experiments, conducted at Yale University, demonstrated a startling willingness among ordinary people to inflict harm when instructed by an authority figure, with a significant proportion of participants administering what they believed were lethal electric shocks to others. The review further explores the neurobiological aspects of obedience, emphasizing the role of mirror neurons and empathetic responses. It highlights how obedience to authority can diminish empathetic responses and alter the neural processing of actions and consequences. This diminished sense of agency and responsibility when following orders is contrasted with situations where individuals act on their own volition, shedding light on the complex interplay between authority, morality, and neurobiology. In conclusion, this review not only provides a deep insight into Milgram's obedience experiments but also extends the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms that drive human behavior in contexts of authority and obedience. It underscores the intricate balance between individual autonomy and susceptibility to external influences, a balance that is crucial in understanding both historical events and contemporary societal dynamics.</p> Kudret Eren Yavuz Sultan Tarlacı Copyright (c) 2023 Kudret Eren Yavuz, Sultan Tarlacı 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10199797 The Midbrain Attention-Orienting and Sensorimotor Control Module as an Neurobiological Basis for Scopesception <p>This article presents an update to existing literature regarding previous theoretical and experimental attempts to provide a biological basis for the everyday perceptual phenomenon of so-called "scopesception," "scopesthesia" or "staring-detection" — that sudden feeling of being stared-at that compels an automatic orientation of head and eyes to the stimulus. Protruding from the dorsal posterior midbrain, the superior colliculus functions as a sensorimotor processing and orienting module responsive to environmental stimuli. Given the superior colliculus constitutes an ancient visual processing and attention-control center for orienting head-and-eye responses and directing defensive behaviors, neurochemical and network attributes of the superior colliculus and extended circuitry indicate a capable platform for describing the signature components of scopesception. As to what specific mechanisms may register the directed-attention, two lines of reasoning are advanced involving multisensory facilitation/enhancement and the ecological psychoacoustics of subaudible vocalizations. In a clinical capacity, observational decreases of superior-colliculus-mediated saccades (linked to sensorimotor processing) during the therapeutic practice of "eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing" may motivate further etiological insight into biology of trauma and techniques for clinical alleviation of anxiety, hypervigilance and post-traumatic stress.</p> Jesse Bettinger Copyright (c) 2023 Jesse Bettinger 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10202949 The Cartesian Set Theory: A Unifying Theory for Mental Disorders <p>In this essay I want to propose a relative new theory about conscious states, human experience and its application in the study of mental disorders in the broader sense. I will call this theory, which has some similarities with the most famous Cartesian Theatre metaphor by Daniel Dennet, The Cartesian Set Theory. My Cartesian Set Theory try to reveal with the help of some analogies the entire field of human experience and, I retain obvious, the conscious one. Contextually, I will try to explain how the phenomenological inquiry overlap the biological studies about the brain functioning in psychiatric disorders. Immediately after, I will show how The Cartesian Set Theory can give a unifying vision of mental disorder, boundaries experience, and to predict new disorders.</p> Andrea Bucci Copyright (c) 2023 Andrea Bucci 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10200411 The NeuroPhilosophy of Physics: A Grand Unification of How Brain and Mind Shape Our Perception of the Universe <p>The advancement of modern science, particularly in neuroscience and physics, may have reached the level of knowledge that enables us to be at the cusp of a new grand unified theory of the nature of our mind and how it shapes our perception of reality and evolution of science itself. This grand leap forward requires a paradigm shift towards greater integration of different scientific disciplines under the emerging new field of complex, dynamic systems, such as our brain and the universe, describing how the complex organization of matter is driven by energy flows. This new paradigm enables us to build a new scientific framework by exploring theories in philosophy, physics, biology and neuroscience; weaving them together into a holistic view of the human mind and the nature of physical reality, as in complex systems the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Throughout the history of philosophy the fundamental question of how the mind perceives reality has shaped its fundamental branches: metaphysics, considering the nature of reality, and epistemology, studying how our mind gains knowledge of reality. This article shall apply new theories in neuroscience, including neuroendocrinology and how it regulates the sociocultural evolution of civilization (Barzilai, 2019; 2023), and cognitive neuroscience, particularly the predictive mind paradigm and free energy principle, to explore the rise of modern science and physics since the Enlightenment, and gain better understanding of both neuroscience and physics.</p> Roy Barzilai Copyright (c) 2023 Roy Barzilai 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10200426 A Theory of the Microdynamics of Occurrent Thought and the Neural Correlates of Consciousness <p>A portion of a phenomenologically based model of thinking and conscious mental states called, A Theory of the Microdynamics of Occurrent Thought (TMDOT), is outlined (Demmin, 2015). Micro phases of occurrent thoughts (OTs) are delineated that consist of phenomenal contents in which a central executive (CE) becomes immersed, followed by one of several transitions of attention characterized by its “face up” or “face down” surfacing from them. The transitions bring about different degrees of consciousness of those contents, ones that reflect different forms of cognitive processing, revealing a relatively invariant structure that carries “on-line” cognition. In this article, it is shown that TMDOT can account for how self-consciousness develops out of object-consciousness during OTs, for how different degrees of object- and self-consciousness are engendered by the interaction of a CE (or minimal self) with different phase-based contents of the thought process, for how a gradually intensifying phenomenology of object- and self-consciousness are engendered within OTs, for a how a pulse-like phenomenology of object- and self-consciousness are engendered across OTs, and for an integrated CE that functions “within” the specious present and traverses the OT process. Significant cognitive and neuroscientific data appear to be consistent with phenomenological observations outlined in TMDOT and are incorporated into it. The integration of such data within the model appears to result in clarification, reinforcement, and validation of each other. A direction is offered for future neuroscientific research which may be able to establish a neurological link between consciousness of an object and pre-reflective self-consciousness embodied in a CE which is attending to that object, thereby validating (or not) the TMDOT proposal that a CE “moves” through phenomenal contents in two fundamentally different ways, each of which serves different cognitive functions that are necessary for the on-line processing of such contents and for different degrees of consciousness of that object.</p> Herbert Demmin Copyright (c) 2023 Herbert Demmin 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10202871 Mental Recognition of Objects via Ramsey Sentences <p>Dogs display vast phenotypic diversity, including differences in height, skull shape, tail, etc. Yet, humans are almost always able to quickly recognize a dog, despite no single feature or group of features are critical to distinguish dogs from other objects/animals. In search of the mental activities leading human individuals to state <em>“I see a dog</em>”, we hypothesize that the brain might extract meaningful information from the environment using Ramsey sentences-like procedures. To turn the proposition <em>“I see a dog”</em> in a Ramsey sentence, the term dog must be replaced by a long and complex assertion consisting only of observational terms, existential quantifiers and operational rules. The Ramsey sentence for <em>“I see a dog”</em> sounds: “<em>There is at least an entity called dog which satisfies the following conditions: it is an animal, it has four legs, …, etc, …, and is something that I have in my sight</em>”. We discuss the biological plausibility and the putative neural correlates of a Ramsey-like mechanism in the central nervous system. We accomplish a brain-inspired, theoretical neural architecture consisting of a parallel network that requires virtually no memory, is devoid of probabilistic choices and can analyze huge but finite amounts of unique visual details, combining them into a single conceptual output. In sum, Ramsey sentence stands for a versatile tool that can be used not just as a methodological device to cope with biophysical affairs, but also for a model to describe the real functioning of cognitive operations such as sensation and perception.</p> Arturo Tozzi Copyright (c) 2023 Arturo Tozzi 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10202881 Implications of Neuroscience for Ancient Traditional Philosophical Questions <p>Neurophilosophy is an interdisciplinary field of study that combines neuroscience and philosophy to better understand the nature of the mind and consciousness. It is based on the idea that advances in our understanding of the brain can shed light on longstanding philosophical questions about the nature of the self, free will, consciousness, and the relationship between the mind and the body. At its core, neurophilosophy is concerned with exploring the relationship between the brain and the mind, and understanding how neural processes give rise to mental phenomena such as consciousness, perception, thought, and emotion. It also seeks to address broader philosophical questions related to the nature of the self, free will, and the relationship between mind and body.</p> Sultan Tarlacı Copyright (c) 2023 Sultan Tarlacı 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10199780 The Dissolution of Dawkins’ Riddle Is Not So Hard <p>In this paper, I propose a metaphysics of group selection that solves the conundrum without appealing to the biological research in modern evolutionism but taking it in the background and citing it when needed. In my opinion, the group selection is practically possible and it does not contrast with the other fact, that natural selection involves individuals’ genes only. I propose this metaphysics as a reasoned narration of how the group selection works and I will show how the conundrum can be solved. The point seems to me that differently from what done till now, the description of the evolutionary mechanisms of individuals at the genes level must to correspond to the behaviour of individuals us such at least for what we know about it.</p> Andrea Bucci Copyright (c) 2023 Andrea Bucci 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10199809 The Infinite: A Cosmological Model Based on God's Self-consciousness <p>This is the second of a series of three papers intended to recast and extend a philosophical and cosmological model, called the Fractal of Self (FOS) model of consciousness. The focus of this paper is to apply the theological / philosophical principles presented in the first paper, published in NeuroPhilosophy, and demonstrate how these axioms align with many discoveries made in the field of material science. As a result, this model proposes how creation began from a singularity of infinite energy density that contains the consciousness of God and manifests as a zero-dimensional point but then fulfills its potentiality and extends into a one-dimensional string. A fundamental premise of this model is that this singularity causes a fractal chain reaction of unending exponential dimensional development. This underlying pattern that begins with pure simplicity and continually creates a ‘hidden order’ of informational complexity, sequentially nested within and interconnected holographically to all actualized possibilities of the past, is the material perception that God’ consciousness creates, reflecting His immaterial infinite imagination. The paper begins by clarifying some points in relation to the previous paper then key features of this cosmological model are explained. The first four discrete moments of creation are then outlined in detail with the aid of a flow figure. This outline details how this great fractal is able to continually create new configuration of unique dimensions by fragmenting the original ‘string singularity’ in two opposing trajectories of evolvement. This dual contracting and expanding movement of the whole universe, which eternally divides ‘pure conscious energy’ towards increasing and decreasing energy densities simultaneously, allows creation to be perfectly balanced with exactly equal amounts of positive and negative energy that always cancels out to equal the dimensionality of the initial ‘point singularity’; zero.</p> Sam Breslauer Copyright (c) 2023 Sam Breslauer 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10199836 In"tarot"ception – Primer, Learning Module, Philosophical Foundations and Application <p>Perception operates in general according to two causal processes—<em>bottom-up</em> (sensory driven; progressive), and <em>top-down </em>(anticipatory; inferential; with signal progression issuing from expectations about future states). Both are essential to consciousness. Like colors, there are, in essence, three primary modes of perception. Exteroception, interoception and proprioception. The interoceptive faculty of perception refers to the moment-to-moment awareness of the body's interior dynamics in concert with regulatory homeostatic and allostatic operations that furnish a core feature of subjective experience, social navigation and sense-of-self. This paper provides an overview of interoception accompanied by a visual diagram that serves as a heuristic learning model for conceptually organizing the materials. This follows with a summary of A.N. Whitehead's 'three modes of perception' that clarifies the connections with interoception to such an extent they may be regarded as philosophical foundations. This is followed by the topics of information integration and biological intuition.</p> Jesse Bettinger Copyright (c) 2023 Jesse Bettinger 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10200160 The Unreasonable Political Effectiveness of Mathematical Modelling <p>Ever since Thomas Malthus used simple mathematics to model the evolution of food production vs the increasing human population of planet Earth and declared that we would very soon eat ourselves out of house and home, politicians have been falling hook, line and sinker for mathematical models. This paper examines how and why the mathematical modelling of complex systems has proved unreasonably effective in convincing mathematically illiterate politicians to take practical measures that have turned out to be disastrous. It then suggests that mathematical modelling of the human brain is not a good strategy to pursue.</p> Susan Pockett Copyright (c) 2023 Susan Pockett 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10200253 Neurophenomenological Oeuvre in Large-Scale Networks: The Neural Dynamics of Subjective Experience <p>Neurophenomenology is a research program that seeks to integrate the fields of neuroscience and phenomenology for the purpose of investigating the nature of human experience. Contemporary neurocognitive models pertaining to self-regulation and execution suggests that individuals interpret objects they perceive and approach as definite in their experiential encounter. Yet, a comprehensive analysis on the phenomenology of awareness and behavior reveals that during the process of detecting or interacting with objects, we experience them in a convoluted manner that underlies an adversarial association of default and executive control networks. In this regard, numerous studies have invested in specific tasks involving creative-thinking that engage large-scale networks during artistic performance to understand the intricate cognitive processes of goal-oriented, self-generated thinking when subjects interact with objects and the world around them. This perspective provides a cognitive neuroscience lens on first-person narrative and third-person neural data co-development through the use of neurofeedback, aiming to enhance our understanding of the dynamic interplay between large-scale neural networks and acknowledges the challenges associated with the concurrent acquisition of both phenomenological and neuroscientific data. By doing so, research gaps and explanations for apparent discrepancies are elaborated, supporting executive function with a more in-depth phenomenological understanding of ourselves.</p> Nathazsha Gande Copyright (c) 2023 Nathazsha Gande 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10200290 Brain Function on the Basis of Biological Equilibrium – The “Triggering Brain” <p>A model of brain function is presented that is consistently based on the biological principle of equilibrium. The neuronal modules of the cerebral cortex are proposed as units in which equilibrium between incoming signals and the synaptic structure is determined or established. Because of the electromagnetic activity of the brain, the electromagnetic properties of the cells are brought into focus. Due to the synaptic changes of the modules - essentially during sleep - an electromagnetic resting balance between the modules is established. Incoming signals during the day, disturb the electromagnetic resting equilibrium and are detected and understood by this. The connecting nodes within the neuronal network are given by the equilibrium modules. Incoming information is represented in the form of the specific pathway of the network, while recognized information is represented by the equilibrium states within the modules. The paper leads to an understanding of information storage and processing in the brain. It even provides a hypothesis for understanding the emergence of the "self". Finally, the consideration of electromagnetic wave properties of neurons opens up a biophysical starting point to understanding conscious perceptions. In neuroscience, we lack a unifying theory of the brain. The reason for this may be an important detail – a missing link – that we do not yet see. Following the "track of biological equilibrium" in this paper leads to the hypothesis that the electromagnetic properties of the neurons are potential candidates to fill that gap. A hypothesis is developed describing their physiological significance in the processing of neurological information.</p> Juergen Stueber Copyright (c) 2023 Juergen Stueber 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 10.5281/zenodo.10203112